|Title : Case 588|
Age / Sex : 62 / M
Chief complaint : Lower back pain for several months. End-stage renal disease
What is your impression?
Two weeks later, you can see the final diagonosis with a brief discussion of this case (Please submit only one answer).
Courtesy : Lee Young-Hwan, Daegu Catholic university Medical Center
Answer: Destructive spondyloarthropathy
Marked narrowing of intervertebral disc space at L3-4 level on plain radiography
MR images show destruction of intervertebral disc space at L3-4 level with irregularity of adjacent endplates and prominent erosions.
T2-weighted image shows lesions of predominantly low signal intensity.
Heterogeneous enhancement on Gd-enhanced images.
No significant paravertebral inflammation or edema
CPPD deposition disease
Patients with chronic renal disease and on hemodialysis may develop many different musculoskeletal abnormalities, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis, osteoporosis, amyloidosis, a variety of crystal deposition diseases, destructive osteoarthropathy, and destructive spondyloarthropathy.
Destructive spondyloarthropathy is considered a serious complication of chronic hemodialysis, and is characterized by rapidly progressive radiographic abnormalities, including loss of intervertebral disk space, erosion of subchondral bone in the adjacent vertebral bodies, and new bone formation.
Destructive spondyloarthropathy affects middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic renal disease who have been undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The prevalence of the condition has been reported to range from 5 to 25.3% in different series, and it depends on age and the duration of hemodialysis. Destructive spondyloarthropathy shows a predilection for the lower portion of the cervical spine, although the craniocervical junction, and occasionally the thoracic and lumbar spine may also be affected.
Beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis is a major cause of destructive spondyloarthropathy. Amyloid deposits accumulate at intervertebral discs, facet joints, and the ligamentum ﬂavum in spine lesions
Destructive spondyloarthropathy is characterized by erosions of the anterosuperior and/or anteroinferior corners of the vertebral body, severe narrowing of the intervertebral disk space, and erosions and cysts of adjacent vertebral plates with minimal osteophyte formation. As the disease progresses, vertebral body collapse, subluxation, or listhesis may occur.
Single, or usually multiple, spinal levels are involved. But destructive changes are limited in one or sometimes two disc levels. It was thought that once the destructive changes had occurred, axial and shearing loads were concentrated to the involved level and destruction progressed in limited disc levels.
MRI findings include low signal intensity in the affected intervertebral discs and adjacent vertebral endplates on both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. Enhancement of the affected spinal segments is seen and may be due to reactive inflammation around deposits of beta-2 microglobulin amyloid.
Early vertebral abnormalities may simulate those of early ankylosing spondylitis, with erosions of the anterosuperior or anteroinferior corners of the vertebral bodies involved. As the disease progresses, destructive lesions may simulate infection.
It may be difficult to differentiate changes secondary to destructive spondyloarthropathy from infectious spondylitis. In infectious spondylitis, structures that are involved show increased signal intensity on T2-weighted and STIR images. But, other studies of destructive spondyloarthropathy have reported abnormal high signal intensity in the affected structures on T2-weighted MR images. In most cases, however, low signal is present in T2-weighted images and allows exclusion of an infection. And absence of paraspinal inflammatory change and no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection may be helpful to its differentiation.
|Total applicants||29||Correct answers||17|